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Pregnancy outcomes in the medical management of glaucoma: An international multicenter descriptive survey

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2023 Sep 6:11206721231199774. doi: 10.1177/11206721231199774. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To determine if glaucoma medications are associated with pregnancy and/or postnatal complications.

METHODS: Multicenter descriptive survey. Subjects were female patients 18-45 years who were previously pregnant with a diagnosis of glaucoma or ocular hypertension prior to pregnancy. Chart review queried diagnosis, glaucoma severity, and race. Survey questions were asked for each pregnancy and queried pregnancy age, medications used, and pregnancy outcomes/complications.

RESULTS: 114 pregnancies of 56 patients (mean 2.0 pregnancies per patient) were included. Three pregnancies with therapeutic abortion were excluded from further analysis. Mean age during pregnancy was 29.1 ± 5.7 years. Of the 111 pregnancies, 20 (18.0%) used no medications and 91 (82.0%) used at least one medication. Medications were topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (n = 45), beta-blockers (n = 55), alpha-agonists (n = 56), and prostaglandin analogues (n = 28). Outcomes were: preterm contractions/labour (6.3%), miscarriage (4.5%), stillbirth (4.5%), induction of labour (11.9%), emergency/unplanned caesarean delivery (13.9%), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay (15.8%), congenital anomalies (8.1%), and low birth weight (10.9%). Fisher exact test assessed outcome associations with individual agents, use of any agent, and different number of agents. Alpha-agonist use was associated with NICU stay: 25.5% rate (p = 0.012) in alpha-agonist use. Most of the alpha-agonist use NICU stays occurred in pregnancies with third trimester use. All other associations were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: The data from this survey suggest an overall favourable safety profile for topical glaucoma medications in pregnancy, but further investigation is needed. Caution should be employed regarding third trimester alpha-agonist use owing to association with NICU stay.

PMID:37671417 | DOI:10.1177/11206721231199774

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