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Congenital Cervical Scoliosis Treated with Concave Side Distraction with Three-Dimensional Printed Titanium Cage

Orthop Surg. 2023 Sep 7. doi: 10.1111/os.13843. Online ahead of print.


STUDY DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective study.

OBJECTIVE: Hemivertebra resection is the only treatment option for congenital cervical scoliosis (CCS). However, this procedure is complex and technically demanding. It often requires a considerably long operation, and there is substantial intraoperative bleeding. Therefore, we have attempted to treat CCS with a concave side distraction comprising a three-dimensional (3D) printed titanium cage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technique for the treatment of patients with CCS.

METHODS: A series of 22 patients with CCS who underwent a concave side distraction technique between 2019 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Radiological measurements included the Cobb angle of the distraction segments, the kyphosis angle, the range of movement, and the distraction correction angle. Student’s t-test and Spearman correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: The study included 12 males and 10 females whose ages ranged from 6 to 14 years old (9.8 ± 2.1 years old). Follow-up times ranged from 15 to 30 months (25.8 ± 3.6 months). Among 22 patients, two patients developed a postoperative C5 nerve root palsy and recovered after being treated with conservative treatment for 6 months. The duration of surgery ranged from 229 to 756 min (389 ± 112 min), and the estimated volume of blood loss ranged from 100 to 600mL (235 ± 121 mL). The coronal Cobb angle (p < 0.001), kyphosis angle (p < 0.05), and range of movement (p < 0.001) between the last follow-up and preoperative period were significantly different. A total of 28 segments were distracted, and the Cobb angle of the distraction segment ranged from 2.4 to 14.1° (8.5 ± 3.0°). There were six upper cervical spines (8.9 ± 1.9°) and 22 lower cervical spines (8.4 ± 3.2°) with no significant difference between them (p = 0.130). In addition, there was no correlation between the angle of the concave side distraction and patients’ age (r = 0.018, p = 0.315). The fusion was solid between the bone and the customized 3D-printed pore metal cage at the final follow-up.

CONCLUSION: The concave side distraction comprising a customized 3D-printed titanium cage implantation can provide satisfactory correction results and is a safe and reliable procedure for treating CCS.

PMID:37675762 | DOI:10.1111/os.13843

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