Int J Implant Dent. 2023 Sep 7;9(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s40729-023-00493-z.
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of teeth and dental restorations on the facial skeleton’s gray value distributions in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
METHODS: Gray value selection for the upper and lower jaw segmentation was performed in 40 patients. In total, CBCT data of 20 maxillae and 20 mandibles, ten partial edentulous and ten fully edentulous in each jaw, respectively, were evaluated using two different gray value selection procedures: manual lower threshold selection and automated lower threshold selection. Two sample t tests, linear regression models, linear mixed models, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were computed to evaluate the influence of teeth, dental restorations, and threshold selection procedures on gray value distributions.
RESULTS: Manual threshold selection resulted in significantly different gray values in the fully and partially edentulous mandible. (p = 0.015, difference 123). In automated threshold selection, only tendencies to different gray values in fully edentulous compared to partially edentulous jaws were observed (difference: 58-75). Significantly different gray values were evaluated for threshold selection approaches, independent of the dental situation of the analyzed jaw. No significant correlation between the number of teeth and gray values was assessed, but a trend towards higher gray values in patients with more teeth was noted.
CONCLUSIONS: Standard gray values derived from CT imaging do not apply for threshold-based bone segmentation in CBCT. Teeth influence gray values and segmentation results. Inaccurate bone segmentation may result in ill-fitting surgical guides produced on CBCT data and misinterpreting bone density, which is crucial for selecting surgical protocols. Created with BioRender.com.