BMC Vet Res. 2023 Sep 7;19(1):148. doi: 10.1186/s12917-023-03697-y.
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a neglected but widespread zoonotic disease throughout the world. Most mammals are hosts of Leptospira spp., including domestic cats, species in which no consensus has been reached on the clinical presentation or diagnosis of the disease. The study of acute-phase proteins (APPs) and biomarkers of oxidative status would contribute to knowledge about the disease in cats. This report evaluated four APPs: Serum amyloid A-SAA, Haptoglobin-Hp, albumin and Paraoxonase 1-PON1 and the antioxidant response through Total Antioxidant Capacity-TAC, in 32 free-roaming cats. Cats were classified as seroreactive for anti-leptospiral antibodies (group 1, n = 8), infected with Leptospira spp (group 2, n = 5) and leptospires-free cats (group 3, n = 19).
RESULTS: SAA differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 (p-value = 0.01) and between groups 2 and 3 (p-value = 0.0001). Hp concentration differences were only detected between groups 2 and 3 (p-value = 0.001). Albumin concentrations only differed between groups 1 and 3 (p-value = 0.017) and 2 and 3 (p-value < 0.005). Cats in groups 1 (p-value < 0.005) and 2 (p-value < 0.005) had lower PON1 concentrations than group 3. No statistically significant differences between pairs of groups were detected for TAC concentrations. The principal component analysis (PCA) retained two principal components, (PC1 and PC2), explaining 60.1% of the observed variability of the inflammatory proteins and the antioxidant TAC.
CONCLUSIONS: Increases in Serum SAA, Hp, and decreases in PON1 activity may indicate an active inflammatory state in infected cats (currently or recently infected).