Heliyon. 2023 Aug 26;9(9):e19477. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e19477. eCollection 2023 Sep.
BACKGROUND: The goal of the present research was to employ CBCT imaging to assess the root and canal anatomy of maxillary second molars in a population from the Hail province of Saudi. The effects of gender and side were taken into account.
METHODS: The investigation included a sample size of 499 completely developed right and left untreated maxillary second molars obtained from 250 Saudi people. The root morphology of each tooth was evaluated. The examination also included an analysis of the canal morphology for each tooth, utilizing Vertucci’s categorization. The effect of genders as well as sides was recorded. Results were analyzed using the Chi-square test.
RESULTS: 464 teeth had three roots (93.0%), whereas 20 teeth (4.0%) had two roots. One root was recorded in 7 (1.4%) of the study sample, whilst 8 (1.6%) had four roots. Although there were no significant differences between the left and right sides (p = .075), gender had a significant influence on the number of roots (p = .030). 240 M (48.1%) had three canal orifices, and 247 (49.5%) had four root canal orifices. Eight molars (1.6%) had two canal orifices, while one and five canal orifices were found in 3 (0.6%) and one (0.2%), respectively. Gender had a significant impact on the number of root canal orifices (p = .039). The observed differences in the orifices of the root canals between the left and right sides were not statistically significant (p = .059). The prevalence of MB2 in maxillary second molars was found to be 49.7%. In the mesiobuccal root, the Vertucci type I configuration had the highest canal frequency (50.3%), followed by the Vertucci types II (14.4%), IV (13.8%), V (12.0%), and III (7.6%), and VI (1.8%). The prevalence of Vertucci type I canal configurations was found to be higher in the distobuccal root (99.4%) and palatal root (98.2%) of maxillary second molars.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant variations in root canal anatomy were observed within the Saudi population. The majority of the subjects from Saudi Arabia in this study exhibited the presence of maxillary second molars with three roots. Approximately half of the sample under investigation exhibited the presence of the four canals.