Sleep Breath. 2023 Sep 8. doi: 10.1007/s11325-023-02907-z. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of anatomic alterations of the upper airway and facial skeleton in the evolution of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a prospective population-based study with an 8-year follow-up.
METHODS: This was a population-based, longitudinal, prospective study, which took place from 2007 to 2015 at the Instituto do Sono, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In 2007, type I polysomnography (PSG), otorhinolaryngological examination, and collection of anthropometric measurements of all volunteers were performed. Volunteers were classified according to their anatomical features of the upper airway and facial skeleton. After 8 years, volunteers were invited for reevaluation. The relationship between anatomical characteristics and polysomnographic evolution was evaluated.
RESULTS: The study included 554 patients. After 8 years of follow-up, there was an increase in neck circumference and body mass index of the participants. There was a worsening in all polysomnographic parameters analyzed, with an increase in the apnea-hypopnea index, a decrease in minimum saturation values, and an increase in the percentage of sleep time with peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation <90%. There was no statistical relationship between the anatomical findings considered unfavorable and the worsening of polysomnographic parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of the general population, after 8 years, we did not find any relationship between upper airway and facial skeleton characteristics and the progression of OSA.