Polymers (Basel). 2023 Sep 1;15(17):3628. doi: 10.3390/polym15173628.
The aim of this study was a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of the physical and mechanical properties of a newly developed nano-sized hydroxyapatite fiber-reinforced composite with other fiber-reinforced and particle-filled composites. Commercially available eight composite resins (3 fiber-reinforced and 5 particle-filled) were used: Fiber-reinforced composites: (1) NovaPro Fill (Nanova): newly developed nano-sized hydroxyapatite fiber-reinforced composite (nHAFC-NF); (2) Alert (Pentron): micrometer-scale glass fiber-reinforced composite (µmGFC-AL); (3) Ever X Posterior (GC Corp): millimeter-scale glass fiber-reinforced composite (mmGFC-EX); Particle-filled composites: (4) SDR Plus (Dentsply) low-viscosity bulk-fill (LVBF-SDR); (5) Estelite Bulk Fill (Tokuyama Corp.) low-viscosity bulk-fill (LVBF-EBF); (6) Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (3M ESPE) low-viscosity bulk-fill (LVBF-FBFF); (7) Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE) high-viscosity bulk-fill (HVBF-FBF); and (8) Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE): microhybrid composite (µH-FZ). For Vickers microhardness, cylindrical-shaped specimens (diameter: 4 mm, height: 2 mm) were fabricated (n = 10). For the three-point bending test, bar-shaped (2 × 2 × 25 mm) specimens were fabricated (n = 10). Flexural strength and modulus elasticity were calculated. AcuVol, a video image device, was used for volumetric polymerization shrinkage (VPS) evaluations (n = 6). The polymerization degree of conversion (DC) was measured on the top and bottom surfaces with Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR; n = 5). The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD, Welsch ANOVA, and Games-Howell tests (p < 0.05). Pearson coefficient correlation was used to determine the linear correlation. Group µH-FZ displayed the highest microhardness, flexural strength, and modulus elasticity, while Group HVBF-FBF exhibited significantly lower VPS than other composites. When comparing the fiber-reinforced composites, Group mmGFC-EX showed significantly higher microhardness, flexural strength, modulus elasticity, and lower VPS than Group nHAFC-NF but similar DC. A strong correlation was determined between microhardness, VPS and inorganic filler by wt% and vol% (r = 0.572-0.877). Fiber type and length could affect the physical and mechanical properties of fibers containing composite resins.