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Serum anandamide and lipids associated with linoleic acid can distinguish interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome from overactive bladder: An exploratory study

Low Urin Tract Symptoms. 2023 Sep 8. doi: 10.1111/luts.12501. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: Diagnosing interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome presents a major challenge because it relies on subjective symptoms and empirical cystoscopic findings. A practical biomarker should discriminate diseases that cause increased urinary frequency, particularly overactive bladder. Therefore, we aimed to identify blood biomarkers that can discriminate between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder.

METHODS: We enrolled patients with Hunner-type interstitial cystitis (n = 20), bladder pain syndrome (n = 20), and overactive bladder (n = 20) and without lower urinary tract symptoms (controls, n = 15) at Ueda Clinic and Nara Medical University Hospital from February 2020 to August 2021. The degree of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome symptoms was evaluated using the interstitial cystitis symptom and problem indices. Metabolomics analysis was performed on 323 serum metabolites using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: In the Hunner-type interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome group, we observed smaller relative areas, including anandamide, acylcarnitine (18:2), linoleoyl ethanolamide, and arachidonic acid, compared to those in the overactive bladder or control group. Notably, the differences in the relative areas of anandamide were statistically significant (median: 3.950e-005 and 4.150e-005 vs. 8.300e-005 and 9.800e-005), with an area under the curve of 0.9321, demonstrating its ability to discriminate interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS: Serum anandamide may be a feasible diagnostic biomarker for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Reduced serum anandamide levels may be associated with pain and inflammation initiation, reflecting the pathology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Furthermore, our findings suggest that abnormal linoleic acid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

PMID:37688290 | DOI:10.1111/luts.12501

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