Respir Res. 2023 Sep 9;24(1):220. doi: 10.1186/s12931-023-02522-2.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a major cause of death in systemic lupus erythematosus, but there are no tools specialized for predicting survival in systemic lupus erythematosus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.
RESEARCH QUESTION: To develop a practical model for predicting long-term prognosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.
METHODS: A prognostic model was developed from a multicenter, longitudinal national cohort of consecutively evaluated patients with systemic lupus erythematosus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. The study was conducted between November 2006 and February 2020. All-cause death was defined as the endpoint. Cox regression and least absolute shrinkage and selection operators were used to fit the model. Internal validation of the model was assessed by discrimination and calibration using bootstrapping.
RESULTS: Of 310 patients included in the study, 81 (26.1%) died within a median follow-up of 5.94 years (interquartile range 4.67-7.46). The final prognostic model included eight variables: modified World Health Organization functional class, 6-min walking distance, pulmonary vascular resistance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, thrombocytopenia, mild interstitial lung disease, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide/brain natriuretic peptide level, and direct bilirubin level. A 5-year death probability predictive algorithm was established and validated using the C-index (0.77) and a satisfactory calibration curve. Risk stratification was performed based on the predicted probability to improve clinical decision-making.
CONCLUSIONS: This new risk stratification model for systemic lupus erythematosus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension may provide individualized prognostic probability using readily obtained clinical risk factors. External validation is required to demonstrate the accuracy of this model’s predictions in diverse patient populations.