Am J Clin Dermatol. 2023 Sep 11. doi: 10.1007/s40257-023-00809-0. Online ahead of print.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease requiring efficacious and safe long-term therapy. Several new systemic treatments have recently been approved for use in patients with moderate to severe AD. However, head-to-head comparisons have not been conducted for all the currently available treatments for AD. Multiple network meta-analyses have compared efficacy of these different therapies during the initial 16-week treatment period, but not beyond week 16. Therefore, understanding the differences in key trial design and statistical methods is essential for evaluating long-term efficacy, making cross-trial comparisons, and informing treatment decisions. This focused narrative review provides an overview of data and trial methodology to guide clinicians in evaluating longer-term efficacy and safety of currently approved systemic treatments for patients with AD. We discuss important elements of longer-term trial designs and statistical analysis strategies that should be considered based on our experience as clinical trialists. In addition, a summary of key efficacy results of published, longer-term, phase III clinical trials of US Food and Drug Administration-approved, novel systemic treatments (i.e., dupilumab, tralokinumab, abrocitinib, and upadacitinib) is provided, including the design and data handling methods used. Long-term safety considerations and differences in the time-effect and safety profiles of various medications are also noted to help inform clinical decisions for individual patients. Overall, the findings of these trials support efficacy in long-term treatment with novel systemic agents for patients with AD.