JAMA Pediatr. 2023 Sep 11. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2023.3566. Online ahead of print.
IMPORTANCE: Currently, the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for short stature cohorts is uncertain. Despite previous studies reporting the widespread use of ES and CMA, a definitive diagnostic yield has not been established.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic yield of ES and CMA in short stature.
DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted using relevant keywords in 3 databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) in February 2023.
STUDY SELECTION: Eligible studies for meta-analysis were those that had at least 10 participants with short stature who were diagnosed using either ES or CMA and the number of diagnosed patients was reported. Of 5222 identified studies, 20 were eventually included in the study.
DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent investigators extracted relevant information from each study, which was then synthesized using proportional meta-analysis to obtain the overall diagnostic yield of ES and CMA.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was to determine the overall diagnostic yield of ES and CMA. A subgroup meta-analysis was also performed to assess if the diagnostic yield varied depending on whether ES was used as a first-tier or last-resort test. Additionally, a meta-regression was carried out to investigate how the diagnostic yield varied over time.
RESULTS: Twenty studies were included, comprising 1350 patients with short stature who underwent ES and 1070 patients who completed CMA. The overall diagnostic yield of ES among the cohorts and CMA among the cohorts was found to be 27.1% (95% CI, 18.1%-37.2%) and 13.6% (95% CI, 9.2%-18.7%), respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed between the first-tier (27.8%; 95% CI, 15.7%-41.8%) and last-resort groups (25.6%; 95% CI, 13.6%-39.6%) (P = .83) or in the percentage of positively diagnosed patients over time. No statistically significant difference was observed between the first-tier (27.8%; 95% CI, 15.7%-41.8%) and last-resort groups (25.6%; 95% CI, 13.6%-39.6%) (P = .83) or in the percentage of positively diagnosed patients over time.
CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides high-level evidence supporting the diagnostic efficacy of ES and CMA in patients with short stature. The findings serve as a solid reference for clinicians when making informed decisions about recommending these genetic tests.