Nevin Manimala Statistics

Community-Level Risk Factors for Firearm Assault and Homicide: The Role of Local Firearm Dealers and Alcohol Outlets

Epidemiology. 2023 Sep 4. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000001670. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Identifying community characteristics associated with firearm assault could facilitate prevention. We investigated the effect of community firearm dealer and alcohol outlet densities on individual risk of firearm assault injury.

METHODS: In this density-sampled case-control study of Californians, January 2005 – September 2015, cases comprised all residents with a fatal or nonfatal firearm assault injury. We sampled controls monthly from the state population, 4:1 with cases. Exposures were monthly densities of county-level pawn and non-pawn firearm dealers and ZIP code-level off-premises alcohol outlets and bars and pubs (“bars/pubs”). We used case-control-weighted g-computation to estimate risk differences (RD) statewide and among younger Black men, comparing observed exposure densities to hypothetical interventions setting these densities to low. We estimated additive interactions between firearm and alcohol retailer density. Secondary analyses examined interventions targeted to high exposure density or outcome burden areas.

RESULTS: There were 67,850 cases and 268,122 controls. Observed (vs. low) densities of pawn firearm dealers and off-premises alcohol outlets were individually associated with elevated monthly risk of firearm assault per 100,000 people (RDpawn dealers: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.08; RDoff-premises outlets: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03), but non-pawn firearm dealer and bar/pub density were not; models targeting only areas with the highest outcome burden were similar. Among younger Black men, estimates were larger. There was no interaction between firearm and alcohol retailer density.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that limiting pawn firearm dealer and off-premises alcohol outlet densities can reduce interpersonal firearm violence.

PMID:37708491 | DOI:10.1097/EDE.0000000000001670

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