Arthritis Res Ther. 2023 Sep 15;25(1):171. doi: 10.1186/s13075-023-03157-w.
BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have explored the associations between Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and certain cancers. Nevertheless, the causal relationships remain unclear. Mendelian randomization (MR) method was used to investigate the causality between SS and different types of cancers.
METHODS: We conducted the two-sample Mendelian randomization with the public genome-wide association studies (GWASs) summary statistics in European population to evaluate the causality between SS and nine types of cancers. The sample size varies from 1080 to 372,373. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used to estimate the causal effects. A Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 0.0031 was considered significant, and P value between 0.0031 and 0.05 was considered to be suggestive of an association. Sensitivity analysis was performed to validate the causality. Moreover, additional analysis was used to assess the associations between SS and well-accepted risk factors of cancers.
RESULTS: After correcting the heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy, the results indicated that patients with SS were significantly associated with an increased risk of lymphomas (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0010, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0005-1.0015, P = 0.0002) and reduced risks of prostate cancer (OR = 0.9972, 95% CI: 0.9960-0.9985, P = 2.45 × 10-5) and endometrial cancer (OR = 0.9414, 95% CI: 0.9158-0.9676, P = 1.65 × 10-5). Suggestive associations were found in liver and bile duct cancer (OR = 0.9999, 95% CI: 0.9997-1.0000, P = 0.0291) and cancer of urinary tract (OR = 0.9996, 95% CI: 0.9992-1.0000, P = 0.0281). No causal effect of SS on other cancer types was detected. Additional MR analysis indicated that causal effects between SS and cancers were not mediated by the well-accepted risk factors of cancers. No evidence of the causal relationship was observed for cancers on SS.
CONCLUSIONS: SS had significant causal relationships with lymphomas, prostate cancer, and endometrial cancer, and suggestive evidence of association was found in liver and bile duct cancer and cancer of urinary tract, indicating that SS may play a vital role in the incidence of these malignancies.