Am J Sports Med. 2023 Sep 16:3635465231195360. doi: 10.1177/03635465231195360. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Arthrofibrosis can limit function and return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Previously reported risk factors for developing arthrofibrosis after ACL reconstruction include female sex, age <18 years, time from injury to surgery <28 days, concomitant meniscal repair, prolonged immobilization, and genetic factors. There is a lack of evidence regarding whether race plays a significant role.
HYPOTHESIS: The risk of undergoing manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) and/or lysis of adhesions (LOA) after primary ACL reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft in female basketball players is higher in African American players than in White players.
STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.
METHODS: Using a computerized relational database, the authors identified competitive female basketball players who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with BTB autograft by the senior author over a 13-year period. Data previously entered from examinations and surgical findings were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between undergoing subsequent MUA and/or LOA and study predictors.
RESULTS: A total of 186 knees (114 African American knees and 72 White knees) met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of MUA and/or LOA was 8.6%. Thirteen African American knees (11.4%) and 3 White knees (4.2%) underwent MUA and/or LOA for treatment of arthrofibrosis. No study predictor was found to have a statistically significant relationship with the rate of MUA and/or LOA on univariate analysis. However, when controlling for body mass index and previously described risk factors (age <18 years, time from injury to surgery ≤28 days, and concomitant meniscal repair) in the logistic regression model, the authors found that MUA and/or LOA was more likely in African American (odds ratio, 4.01 [95% CI, 1.01-15.92]; P = .049) than in White female players and in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction within 28 days of injury (odds ratio, 4.01 [95% CI, 1.18-13.57]; P = .026) compared with those with surgery delayed beyond 28 days.
CONCLUSION: In female basketball players, the present study found a statistically significantly increased risk for undergoing MUA and/or LOA after primary ACL reconstruction with BTB autograft in African American females compared with White females and in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction within 28 days of injury.