PLoS One. 2023 Sep 15;18(9):e0290838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0290838. eCollection 2023.
Climate change is one of the most relevant challenges that the world has to deal with. Studies that aim to understand the behavior of environmental and atmospheric variables and the way they relate to each other can provide helpful insights into how the climate is changing. However, such studies are complex and rarely found in the literature, especially in dealing with data from the Brazilian territory. In this paper, we analyze four environmental and atmospheric variables, namely, wind speed, radiation, temperature, and humidity, measured in 27 Weather Stations (the capital of each of the 26 Brazilian states plus the federal district). We use the detrended fluctuation analysis to evaluate the statistical self-affinity of the time series, as well as the cross-correlation coefficient ρDCCA to quantify the long-range cross-correlation between stations, and a network analysis that considers the top 10% ρDCCA values to represent the cross-correlations between stations better. The methodology used in this paper represents a step forward in the field of hybrid methodologies, combining time series and network analysis that can be applied to other regions, other environmental variables, and also to other fields of research. The application results are of great importance to better understand the behavior of environmental and atmospheric variables in the Brazilian territory and to provide helpful insights about climate change and renewable energy production.