Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2023 Sep 25;58(9):650-657. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112141-20230318-00126.
Objective: To investigate the clinical effect and the influencing factors of ultrasound-indicated cerclage and history-indicated cerclage in singleton gestation. Methods: The clinical data of 272 singleton pregnant women with cervical incompetence who underwent McDonald cervical cerclage due to medical history indication (history-indicated group) or ultrasound indication (ultrasound-indicated group) in Peking University First Hospital from January 2010 to February 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The general clinical data and maternal and fetal outcomes were compared between the history-indicated group (141 cases) and ultrasound-indicated group (131 cases). According to the gestational age at delivery, 272 pregnant women who underwent cervical cerclage were further divided into ≥34 weeks group (225 cases) and <34 weeks group (47 cases), and the influencing factors of preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation were analyzed. Results: (1) The median gestational age at cerclage was 16.6 weeks in the history-indicated group and 23.4 weeks in the ultrasound-indicated group, and the median gestational age extension at delivery was 21.4 weeks and 14.7 weeks, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the two groups (all P<0.05). (2) The full-term birth rate was 76.6% (108/141) in the history-indicated group and 71.0% (93/131) in the ultrasound-indicated group, the live birth rate was 97.2% (137/141) and 97.7% (128/131), and the median birth weight of live birth was 3 155 g and 3 055 g, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). Among 272 pregnant women with cervical cerclage, 265 neonates survived (97.4%, 265/272). The gestational age of 7 pregnant women who did not have live birth was ≤25 weeks of gestation (range: 19+1-25 weeks), and they were all clinically infected or confirmed chorioamnionitis or pathogenic microorganisms carrying during pregnancy, and their families gave up. The minimum birth weight of the surviving neonate was 850 g (gestational week of delivery was 26+6 weeks). (3) Univariate analysis showed that compared with ≥34 weeks group, the body mass index (BMI) of pregnant women in <34 weeks group was higher at 6-7 weeks of gestation (median: 24.5 vs 25.4 kg/m2), shorter cervical length (CL) at 1-2 weeks after surgery [(31.1±8.4) vs (26.1±11.0) mm], shorter CL at 26-28 weeks of gestation after surgery (median: 26.3 vs 16.0 mm), and higher incidence of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) before and after surgery and before delivery. The differences were all statistically significant (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preterm birth before 34 weeks was negatively associated with CL at 26-28 weeks of gestation after cerclage (OR=0.902, 95%CI: 0.858-0.947; P<0.001), and was positively correlated with elevated CRP before delivery (OR=3.492, 95%CI: 1.652-7.381; P=0.001). There were no significant correlations between preterm birth and preoperative or postoperative CRP elevation, CL at 1-2 weeks after surgery, and BMI at 6-7 weeks of gestation (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Cervical cerclage for singleton pregnant women with cervical incompetence indicated by history or ultrasound both have good clinical efficacy, and there is no significant difference in maternal and fetal outcomes between the two groups. CL at 26-28 weeks of gestation and CRP before delivery are risk factors for preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation after cervical cerclage.