Disabil Rehabil. 2023 Sep 19:1-11. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2023.2259303. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the Barriers to Physical Activity and Disability Survey (B-PADS) into the Thai context and to assess its inter- and intra-rater reliability.
METHODS: Participants were experts in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI, n = 3), linguistic experts (n = 7), Thai-English bilingual speakers (n = 40), Thai physiotherapists (n = 8), and people with SCI living in Thailand (n = 43). The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the B-PADS into the Thai context was conducted using a 6-step process; forward translation, reconciliation of the two translated versions, backward-translation, harmonisation, backward-translation of the revised version, and cognitive debriefing with potential users and target population. The reliability of the translated tool was assessed using Cohen’s kappa (K) and McNemar’s test.
RESULTS: The inter-rater reliability test demonstrated high-range agreement for the majority of statements (27 out of 38; Cohen’s K > 0.60) in the Thai-B-PADS final version. The intra-rater reliability test revealed that the majority of the statements (29 out of 38) in the Thai-B-PADS final version obtained substantial (Cohen’s K = 0.61-0.80, p < 0.05) to perfect agreement (Cohen’s K = 1.0, p < 0.05). McNemar’s test displayed no statistically significant differences amongst assessors (p > 0.05) for nearly all statements.
CONCLUSION: The Thai-B-PADS final version was successfully translated and culturally adapted for people with SCI.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONMulti-stakeholders, including academic experts, researchers, translators, clinicians, target users and clients, should be involved in developing health-related questionnaires’ translation and cultural adaptation processes.The Thai version of Barriers to Physical Activity and Disability Survey (B-PADS) possessed high levels of inter- and intra-rater reliability to assess barriers related to undertaking physical activities or exercise in people with spinal cord injury.Interactional biases and perceived social status effects may not be avoided when deploying a face-to-face interview of health-related questionnaires in a culture where social hierarchy is present within the language.The translation and adaptation processes used in this study were thorough, systematic and comprehensive, providing a culturally competent exemplar for translating health-related questionnaires between languages of different root origins.