Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2023 Sep 25;58(9):680-690. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112141-20230614-00263.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of postoperative radiotherapy and high-risk pathological factors on the prognosis of early-stage neuroendocrine carcinoma of cervix (NECC). Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort study of early-stage NECC in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2011 to April 2022 were enrolled. The patients were treated with radical hysterectomy±adjuvant treatment. They were divided into postoperative non-radiation group and postoperative radiation group. The possible postoperative recurrence risk factors identified by univariate analysis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), recurrence rate, and mortality rate. Results: (1) Sixty-two cases were included in the study, including 33 cases in postoperative non-radiation group and 29 cases in postoperative radiation group. (2) The median follow-up time was 37 months (ranged 12-116 months), with 23 cases (37%) experienced recurrences. There were 7 cases (11%) pelvic recurrences and 20 cases (32%) distant recurrences, in which including 4 cases (6%) both pelvic and distant recurrences. Compared with postoperative non-radiation group, the postoperative radiation group had a lower pelvic recurrence rate (18% vs 3%; P=0.074) but without statistic difference, a slightly elevated distant recurrence rate (24% vs 41%; P=0.150) and overall recurrence rate (33% vs 41%; P=0.513) without statistically significances. Univariate analysis showed that lymph-vascular space invasion and the depth of cervical stromal invasion≥1/2 were risk factors for postoperative recurrence (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lymph-vascular space invasion was an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence (OR=23.03, 95%CI: 3.55-149.39, P=0.001). (3) During the follow-up period, 18 cases (29%, 18/62) died with tumor, with 10 cases (30%, 10/33) in postoperative non-radiation group and 8 cases (28%, 8/29) in postoperative radiation group, without significant difference (P=0.814). The postoperative 3-year and 5-year survival rate was 79.2%, 60.8%. The depth of cervical stromal invasion≥1/2 was more common in postoperative radiation group (27% vs 64%; P=0.011), and postoperative radiation in such patients showed an extended trend in PFS (32.3 vs 53.9 months) and OS (39.4 vs 73.4 months) but without statistic differences (P=0.704, P=0.371). Compared with postoperative non-radiation group, the postoperative radiation did not improve PFS (54.5 vs 37.3 months; P=0.860) and OS (56.2 vs 62.4 months; P=0.550) in patients with lymph-vascular space invasion. Conclusions: Postoperative radiation in early-stage NECC patients has a trend to reduce pelvic recurrence but not appear to decrease distant recurrence and overall recurrence, and has not improved mortality. For patients with the depth of cervical stromal invasion≥1/2, postoperative radiation has a trend of prolonging OS and PFS but without statistic difference. Lymph-vascular space invasion is an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence, but postoperative radiation in such patients does not seem to have any survival benefits.