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Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of volatile organic compound metabolites, hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in human urine

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2023 Sep 14;1229:123885. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2023.123885. Online ahead of print.


Humans are widely and concurrently exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, few studies have reported the internal co-exposure levels of these chemicals in occupational and general populations. Specifically, the associations revealed between the urinary levels of metabolites of VOCs (mVOCs), hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), and oxidative stress biomarkers for humans remain limited. In this study, a method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 22 mVOCs, 12 OH-PAHs, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in human urine samples. The method was validated with all target analyte accuracies and precisions in the range of 76 %-120 % and 1 %-14 % at three levels of spiked urine samples, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the target analytes were 0.01-0.34 ng/mL and 0.01-7.57 ng/mL, respectively. And the method was applied to measure urinary levels of target analytes from 38 petrochemical workers in Guangzhou, South China. Except for 3-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene, all target analytes were detected in the urine samples. The average levels were 0.05-12.6 ng/mL for individual OH-PAHs, 0.20-73620 ng/mL for individual mVOCs, and 1.00 ng/mL for 8-OHdG. Additionally, 3-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxy-pyrene, 6-hydroxy-chrysene, N-acetyl-S-(trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, 2-methylhippuric acid, thiodiacetic acid, trans, trans-Muconic acid, and N-acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine had statistically significant positive effects on 8-OHdG levels, while 1-hydroxy-naphthalene, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, and hippuric acid showed a negative effect on 8-OHdG, indicating these metabolites could lead to synergistic or antagonistic oxidative DNA damage. This study provides a robust analytical method that permits a comprehensive assessment of co-exposure to PAHs and VOCs and their potential adverse health effects.

PMID:37725852 | DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2023.123885

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