J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2023 Oct 13:S1058-2746(23)00717-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2023.09.006. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors have been identified for the development of postoperative shoulder stiffness, and there has been increasing interest in orthopedic literature regarding patient-reported allergy (PRA) as an identifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether PRAs are associated with subsequent rates of diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis (AC) or return to the operating room for postoperative shoulder stiffness within two years following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR).
METHODS: Patients were retrospectively identified using Current Procedural Terminology surgical billing codes to identify patients who underwent ARCR at a single urban academic institution from January 2012 to December 2020 with minimum 2-year follow-up. Lysis of adhesions (LOA), MUA, and adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder were further queried within two years postoperatively for the ipsilateral shoulder. Patients were excluded if they had undergone ipsilateral MUA/LOA or received a diagnosis of AC prior to the index procedure. Demographic characteristics and medical comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism) were extracted from electronic medical records. Baseline characteristics were compared between patients with and without PRAs. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association of the presence of PRAs overall, as well as presence one, two, or three or more PRAs, with subsequent MUA/LOA or diagnosis of AC within two years postoperatively.
RESULTS: Of 7,057 patients identified in the study period, 6,583 patients were eligible for the final analysis. The mean age was 56.6±11.7 years and the mean BMI was 29.1±5.6. Overall, 19.3% of patients (n=1,271) reported at least one allergy and 7.1% (n=469) had >1 PRA. 44 patients (0.7%) underwent subsequent ipsilateral MUA/LOA within two years postoperatively, while 93 patients (1.4%) received a diagnosis of ipsilateral AC in the same time frame. PRAs were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of AC (OR 2.39; 95% CI [1.45-3.92]; p<.001), but not MUA/LOA (OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.26-3.61]; p=0.133). Patients with two PRAs had greater odds of being diagnosed with AC than patients with one PRA (OR: 2.74; 95% CI [1.14-5.99]; p=0.012). While this association was non-significant for MUA/LOA, patients with 2 PRAs (OR: 2.67; 95% CI [0.96-8.80]; p=0.059) demonstrated a similar statistical trend.
CONCLUSION: Patient-reported allergies are associated with increased odds of receiving a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis within two years following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, but were not found to be associated with return to the operating room for postoperative stiffness.