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Hemodynamic Reactivity to Mental Stress in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Oct 2;6(10):e2338060. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.38060.


IMPORTANCE: The clinical significance of hemodynamic reactivity to mental stress in the population with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hemodynamic reactivity to mental stress and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with stable CAD.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study included individuals with stable CAD from 2 prospective studies from a university-based hospital network: the Mental Stress Ischemia Prognosis Study (MIPS) and the Myocardial Infarction and Mental Stress Study 2 (MIMS2). Participants were enrolled between June 2011 and March 2016 and followed up for a median of 6.0 (IQR, 5.6-6.0) years in MIPS and 4.6 (IQR, 3.8-5.3) years in MIMS2. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2022, to February 15, 2023.

EXPOSURES: The rate-pressure product (RPP) was calculated as the mean systolic blood pressure times the mean heart rate at rest. Rate-pressure product reactivity was calculated as the maximum RPP during a standardized mental stress test minus the RPP at rest.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. The secondary end point additionally included hospitalizations for heart failure.

RESULTS: From the total of 938 individuals from the pooled cohort (mean [SD] age, 60.2 [10.1] years; 611 [65.1%] men), 631 participated in MIPS and 307 in MIMS2. A total of 373 individuals (39.8%) were Black, 519 (55.3%) were White, and 46 (4.9%) were of unknown race or ethnicity. The RPP increased by a mean (SD) of 77.1% (23.1%) during mental stress (mean [SD] absolute change, 5651 [2878]). For every SD decrease in RPP reactivity with mental stress, the adjusted hazard ratios for the primary and secondary end points were 1.30 (95% CI, 1.04-1.72) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06-1.56), respectively, in MIPS and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.06-1.97) and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.02-1.60), respectively, in MIMS2. In the pooled sample, when RPP reactivity to mental stress was added to a model including traditional clinical risk characteristics, model discrimination for adverse events improved (increase in C statistic of 5% for the primary end point; P = .009).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of individuals with stable CAD, a blunted cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was associated with adverse outcomes. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical utility of mental stress reactivity testing in this population.

PMID:37847500 | DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.38060

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