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Determination of Appropriate Umbilicus Position during Abdominoplasty in Male Patients

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2023 Oct 16;11(10):e5342. doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000005342. eCollection 2023 Oct.


BACKGROUND: Abdominoplasty techniques are well documented. The ideal position of the umbilicus has, however, received limited attention. Unfortunately, umbilicus position is not universally agreed upon in male cosmetic abdominoplasty. This study was conducted to determine the ideal umbilicus anthropometric measurements in young men, and the relationships between umbilical position and anterior trunk and torso reference points that may be applicable to intraoperative positioning. It is aimed also at investigating whether umbilicus position would be more accurately determined by considering nipple position instead of the abdominal crease, as recently proposed.

METHODS: Several anthropometric measurements of various anterior abdominal and thoracic landmarks were conducted on 60 young and middle-aged male volunteers and 30 cadavers at São Paulo city. All statistical analysis was completed using Stata software.

RESULTS: Of all the measured reference points, a much stronger correlation (0.513) was demonstrated between umbilicus-anterior axillary fold (U-AX) and inter-nipple (N-N) distances with a constant golden number ratio relationship (N-N = U-AX × 0.618) compared with the weak correlation of 0.034 between umbilicus-xiphisternum and umbilicus-abdominal crease. In 75% of volunteers, the calculated U-AX was within ±3 cm of actual measurement, and in 33.33% within ±1 cm.

CONCLUSIONS: U-AX = 1.618 × N-N equation is more predictive of adequate umbilicus repositioning during abdominoplasty in male patients. Chest and abdomen of men are a single aesthetic unit. Proper positioning of the nipples and umbilicus, as well as harmonious abdominal and torso proportions are critical for an optimal final aesthetic outcome.

PMID:37850205 | PMC:PMC10578692 | DOI:10.1097/GOX.0000000000005342

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