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Health Care Trainees’ and Professionals’ Perceptions of ChatGPT in Improving Medical Knowledge Training: Rapid Survey Study

J Med Internet Res. 2023 Oct 18;25:e49385. doi: 10.2196/49385.


BACKGROUND: ChatGPT is a powerful pretrained large language model. It has both demonstrated potential and raised concerns related to knowledge translation and knowledge transfer. To apply and improve knowledge transfer in the real world, it is essential to assess the perceptions and acceptance of the users of ChatGPT-assisted training.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the perceptions of health care trainees and professionals on ChatGPT-assisted training, using biomedical informatics as an example.

METHODS: We used purposeful sampling to include all health care undergraduate trainees and graduate professionals (n=195) from January to May 2023 in the School of Public Health at the National Defense Medical Center in Taiwan. Subjects were asked to watch a 2-minute video introducing 5 scenarios about ChatGPT-assisted training in biomedical informatics and then answer a self-designed online (web- and mobile-based) questionnaire according to the Kirkpatrick model. The survey responses were used to develop 4 constructs: “perceived knowledge acquisition,” “perceived training motivation,” “perceived training satisfaction,” and “perceived training effectiveness.” The study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate and test the structural model and hypotheses.

RESULTS: The online questionnaire response rate was 152 of 195 (78%); 88 of 152 participants (58%) were undergraduate trainees and 90 of 152 participants (59%) were women. The ages ranged from 18 to 53 years (mean 23.3, SD 6.0 years). There was no statistical difference in perceptions of training evaluation between men and women. Most participants were enthusiastic about the ChatGPT-assisted training, while the graduate professionals were more enthusiastic than undergraduate trainees. Nevertheless, some concerns were raised about potential cheating on training assessment. The average scores for knowledge acquisition, training motivation, training satisfaction, and training effectiveness were 3.84 (SD 0.80), 3.76 (SD 0.93), 3.75 (SD 0.87), and 3.72 (SD 0.91), respectively (Likert scale 1-5: strongly disagree to strongly agree). Knowledge acquisition had the highest score and training effectiveness the lowest. In the SEM results, training effectiveness was influenced predominantly by knowledge acquisition and partially met the hypotheses in the research framework. Knowledge acquisition had a direct effect on training effectiveness, training satisfaction, and training motivation, with β coefficients of .80, .87, and .97, respectively (all P<.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Most health care trainees and professionals perceived ChatGPT-assisted training as an aid in knowledge transfer. However, to improve training effectiveness, it should be combined with empirical experts for proper guidance and dual interaction. In a future study, we recommend using a larger sample size for evaluation of internet-connected large language models in medical knowledge transfer.

PMID:37851495 | DOI:10.2196/49385

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