J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2023 Apr-Jun;27(2):295-301. doi: 10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_301_22. Epub 2023 Jul 13.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the degree of expression of Wilm’s Tumor Gene-1 (WT-1), Syndecan (CD 138) and Snail in Ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and to analyse their potential role in pathogenesis.
METHODS AND MATERIAL: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate WT-1, Syndecan and Snail expression in Ameloblastoma (n = 20) and OKC (n = 20). Topographical immunoexpression pattern of Ameloblast-like cells, Stellate Reticulum-like cells in Ameloblastoma and basal layer as well as suprabasal layer of cells of OKC were also compared. The results obtained were subjected to ANOVA test and Tukey HSD test through SPSS software 20.0 for Microsoft Windows.
RESULTS: WT-1 and Snail overexpression was seen in both Ameloblastoma and OKCs. Syndecan, responsible for maintaining normal cellular morphology, cell-cell adhesion and differentiation was significantly downregulated in both the lesions. The Ameloblasts-like cells and the basal cells showed significantly higher immunopositivity for WT-1 and Syndecan as compared to that of basal cells. An inverse relation was noted for Snail protein. The ANOVA test predicted a statistically significant difference of expression across the lesions with a P value <0.0001 for Syndecan and Snail.
CONCLUSIONS: The under-expression of epithelial membrane protein Syndecan-1 and upregulation of EMT transcription factor Snail can promote local invasion and is indicative of poor prognosis of these lesions. The overexpression of WT-1 results in tumorigenesis, proliferation and localized aggressiveness of Ameloblastoma and intrabony growth of OKC. Further investigation on the biologic behaviour of OKC is still recommended to arrive at more specific conclusions regarding its nature.