BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2023 Oct 20;15(1):136. doi: 10.1186/s13102-023-00748-7.
BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns that include high-quality and varied food groups have the potential to modulate oxidative status. This research was conducted to determine dietary diversity score (DDS) and food quality score (FQS) in football players and their matched non-athletes, also their associations with oxidative indicators assessed by the urinary levels of F2alpha-isoprostane (F2a-IP) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG).
METHODS: Participants consisted of 45 male football players and 45 male non-athletes in two age-and body mass index (BMI)-matched groups from Shiraz City, Iran. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and urine samples were analyzed to determine oxidative biomarkers. Dietary data derived from a reliable food frequency questionnaire with 168 items was completed to determine DDS and FQS. For data analysis, an appropriate generalized estimating equation model was set up.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that FQS (β = 5.46; P < 0.001) and DDS (β = 1.30; P < 0.001) scores were significantly higher in the footballers in comparison to the non-athletes. Moreover, FQS was negatively associated with 8-OHdG (β=-0.35; P = 0.008) and F2a-IP (β=-4.30; P = 0.01) levels in all participants. In addition, DDS was inversely related to 8-OHdG (β=-1.25; P = 0.01) and F2a-IP (β=-11.67; P = 0.04) levels in all participants.
CONCLUSIONS: Food quality scores and dietary diversity of footballers’ diets were found to be higher in comparison to the non-athletes. Furthermore, a higher FQS and DDS were associated with lower levels of oxidative biomarkers in all participants.