Phytother Res. 2023 Oct 21. doi: 10.1002/ptr.8046. Online ahead of print.
This systematic review aimed to gather data on the effects of sumac supplementation on lipid profile. A systematic literature search was carried out using electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) up to March 2023 to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of sumac intake on lipid profile as an outcome. All participants enrolled in our study were adult individuals who consumed sumac, in various forms, as an intervention. The included articles were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Heterogeneity tests of the selected trials were performed using the I2 statistic. Random effects models were assessed based on the heterogeneity tests, and pooled data were determined as the weighted mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. In total, seven RCTs with a total sample size of 570 subjects were included. This study found a significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC) (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -10.01 mg/dL; 95% CI: -18.67, -1.34), triglyceride (TG) (WMD: -8.52 mg/dL; 95% CI: -14.79, -2.25), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C levels (WMD: -9.25 mg/dL; 95% CI: -14.56, -3.93); Moreover, a significant increase was observed in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C concentration (WMD: 2.97 mg/dL; 95% CI: 0.75, 5.19). The reduction in TG and TC was greater in studies with a duration of ≥12 compared to <12 weeks. The increase in HDL-C was greater in participants with an intervention duration of ≥12 compared to <12 weeks. Moreover, subgroup analysis based on the dose of sumac suggested a significant reduction in TC and LDL, specifically for doses below 3 g. Consumption of sumac significantly decreased serum TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations. This study suggested significantly positive effects on HDL-C by intake of sumac. Longer interventions (>12 weeks) have a more favorable impact on TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C, while sumac doses below 3 g/day show greater effects on TC and LDL-C. These findings underscore the potential of sumac supplementation as a valuable approach to lipid profile management.