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Implementation of tuberculosis preventive therapy with INH-Rifapentine (3HP) for latent tuberculosis infection management in household tuberculosis contacts in India: A prospective study

Trop Med Int Health. 2023 Oct 21. doi: 10.1111/tmi.13940. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the acceptance, initiation, implementation and treatment completion rates of tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy (TPT) using 3HP (INH-Rifapentine) among household contacts of microbiologically confirmed drug sensitive TB cases on anti-tubercular treatment under programmatic real-world settings. The secondary objectives were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of latent TB infection (LTBI) in household contacts of the index TB cases. We also ascertained the safety profile of the 3HP TPT regimen in the household contacts.

METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at 10 TB chest clinics in Delhi, India during 2022-2023. Household contacts aged 14 and older who tested positive for TB infection on a Tuberculin Skin test were initiated on the 3HP regimen. Logistic regression was performed by including statistically significant independent variables in multiple prediction models. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. STATA, version 15.1, was used to compute all analyses.

RESULTS: A total of 1067 (84.68%) eligible contacts of microbiologically confirmed, drug sensitive TB cases underwent screening with tuberculin skin test (TST), 614 (95.6%) LTBI positive contacts accepted the initiation of TPT, and 564 (91.8%) of those initiated on TPT completed the treatment. The major reason for refusal of screening was the lack of perception of risk of TB disease due to asymptomatic status. The prevalence of LTBI positivity through TST was 61.5% (95% CI, 58.5%, 64.4%). Adverse events were reported by 195 (31.8%) contacts initiated on 3HP of which 20 participants discontinued TPT. None of the sociodemographic factors showed a significant association with LTBI positivity (except age) or TPT completion rates.

CONCLUSION: LTBI management with 3HP is feasible among adolescent and adult household contacts in India with high rates of adherence from initiation until treatment completion. The maximum attrition of participants occurred at the time of screening for LTBI using TST.

PMID:37864386 | DOI:10.1111/tmi.13940

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