Eur Geriatr Med. 2023 Oct 23. doi: 10.1007/s41999-023-00877-9. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pose significant challenges to public health globally with no effective treatment strategies available. Therefore, the research focuses on developing effective prophylaxis to prevent the onset of these diseases. Recent studies have suggested that low-dose aspirin may help reduce the risk of dementia. Nonetheless, evidence regarding the correlation between aspirin consumption and the onset of dementia and AD is limited. This review aims to provide an up-to-date summary of the existing evidence and evaluate the association between aspirin and the onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases was conducted to find eligible studies published until April 2023. A random-effects meta-analysis of the eligible studies was then performed to assess the link between aspirin use and the onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, we conducted subgroup analyses to evaluate the overall effect of low-dose (75-100 mg) aspirin consumption on the onset of dementia and AD.
RESULTS: A total of 875 studies were identified, with only 22 meeting the inclusion criteria. There was no statistically significant impact of aspirin consumption on the onset of dementia (HR 1.13, 11 studies) or Alzheimer’s disease (HR 0.91, 3 studies). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that taking low doses of aspirin (75-100 mg) did not significantly affect the onset of either dementia (HR 0.96, 13 studies) or Alzheimer’s disease (HR 0.85, 2 studies).
CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use does not decrease the risk of dementia or AD, even when taken in low doses. However, the quality of the studies analyzed was inadequate, with only three randomized controlled trials included in the review. Future high-quality studies are needed to assess the effect of aspirin consumption on these diseases. These findings may assist clinicians in selecting appropriate prophylactic strategies for patients at risk of developing dementia and AD.