J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2023 Oct 23. doi: 10.1007/s40615-023-01838-5. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Black patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) have disproportionately worse outcomes than White patients, possibly related to variable involvement of cardiovascular specialists in their clinical care. We sought to determine whether race was associated with cardiology involvement in clinical care during inpatient admission and whether cardiology involvement in care was associated with higher claims of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) a week after hospital discharge.
METHODS: Using Optum’s de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart (CDM), we included Black and White patients’ first hospital admission for PPCM from 2008 to 2021. Cardiology involvement in clinical care was defined as the receipt of attending care from a cardiovascular specialist during admission. GDMT included beta-blockers (BB) for all patients and triple therapy (BB, angiotensin-responsive medications, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) for non-pregnant patients. Logistic regression was used to determine the associations between cardiology involvement in clinical care during admission and (1) patient race and (2) GDMT prescription, adjusting for age and comorbidities.
RESULTS: Among 668 patients (32.6% Black, 67.4% White, 93.3% commercially insured), there was no significant difference in the odds of cardiology involvement in clinical care by race (aOR: 1.41; 95%CI: 0.87-2.33, P=0.17). Inpatient cardiology care was associated with 2.75 times increased odds of having a prescription claim for GDMT (BB) for White patients (aOR: 2.75; 95%CI 1.50-5.06, P=0.001), and the estimated effect size was similar but not statistically significant for Black patients (aOR: 2.20, 95% CI, 0.84-5.71, P=0.11). The interaction between race and cardiology involvement in clinical care was not statistically significant for the receipt of BB prescription. Among 274 non-pregnant patients with PPCM (37.2% Black, 62.8% White), 5.8% received triple GDMT. Of these, none of the Black patients lacking cardiology care had triple GDMT. However, cardiology involvement in care was not significantly associated with triple GDMT for either race.
CONCLUSIONS: Among a commercially insured population within PPCM, race was not associated with cardiology involvement in clinical care during hospitalization. However, cardiology involvement in care was associated with significantly higher odds of prescription claims for BB for only White patients. Additional strategies are needed to support equitable GDMT prescription.