Br J Nutr. 2023 Oct 23:1-38. doi: 10.1017/S0007114523002362. Online ahead of print.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major concern for women worldwide, due to increased risk of fractures and diminished bone quality. Recent research on gut microbiota have suggested that probiotics can combat various diseases, including postmenopausal bone loss. Although several pre-clinical studies have explored the potential of probiotics in improving postmenopausal bone loss, the results have been inconsistent, and the mechanism of action remains unclear.To address this, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics on animal models of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The bone parameters studied were Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Bone Volume Fractions (BV/TV), and hallmarks of bone formation and resorption.Pooled analysis showed that probiotic treatment significantly improves BMD and BV/TV of the ovariectomised animals. Probiotics, while not statistically significant, exhibited a tendency toward enhancing bone formation and reducing bone resorption. Next, we compared the effects of Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. on osteoporotic bone. Both probiotics improved BMD and BV/TV compared to control, but Lactobacillus sp. had a larger effect size. In conclusion, our findings suggest that probiotics have the potential to improve bone health and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, further studies are required to investigate the effect of probiotics on postmenopausal bone health in humans.