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Efficacy of ceramidase inhibition on human renal cell carcinoma: a cell culture study

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2023 Oct;27(5 Suppl):121-129. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202310_34080.


OBJECTIVE: Cancer-preventative medicines like curcumin, resveratrol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications all have their effects modulated by ceramide. According to research, these medications raise ceramide levels in cancer cells, leading to programmed cell death. Recently, cancer research has been involved in sphingolipid metabolism. The critical molecule here is ceramide. We aimed to investigate if the inhibition of ceramidases induces death in the human renal cell carcinoma cell line.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human kidney carcinoma A-498 (ATCC® HTB-44™) cells were used as test cells. Ceranib-2, fetal bovine serum (FBS), penicillin/streptomycin, dimethyl sulfoxide, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium High Glucose, caspase 3/7, annexin-V, Bcl-2 activation dual detection, and MitoPotential kits were used. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay, annexin-V analysis, caspase 3/7 analysis, Bcl-2 activation analysis, and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential were performed.

RESULTS: MTT colorimetric assay results for 24 hours indicated that the viability of human renal cell carcinoma cells decreased compared to the control group with an increase in the applied concentration of the ceramidase inhibitor-ceranib-2. The growth inhibition by ceranib-2 for 24 hours did not decrease the viability under 50%; thus, it could not be possible to calculate the IC50 value for the short-term application of ceranib-2 for 24 hours to A-498 cells. A statistically significant decrease in cell viability was recorded at doses of 100, 50, 25, and 12.2 µM of ceranib-2, and no significant decrease was detected at the lower doses of ceranib-2. The highest inhibition caused by ceranib-2 on human renal cell carcinoma cells A-498 was detected at an application time of 72 hours. This inhibition was statistically significant for all applied doses of ceranib-2 on A-498 cells compared to untreated cells. Annexin-V technique that detects the translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane of apoptotic cells indicated that after the application of ceranib-2, apoptosis was triggered on A-498 cells with a total apoptotic profile of 12.12% compared to the untreated cells that were used as controls. Compared to untreated A-498 cells, a rise in percentage to 16.25% of cells with activated caspases 3/7 was recorded after applying IC50 concentration of ceranib-2 on A-498 cells for 48 hours.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicated that the application of ceramidase inhibitor, ceranib-2 on human renal cell carcinoma A-498 cells cause cytotoxicity, antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and apoptotic efficacies in a dose and time-dependent manner probably via inhibiting the acid ceramidases that hydrolyze ceramides that induce cell death. For further conclusions, more mechanical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmaceutic, as well as in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity investigations are required.

PMID:37869957 | DOI:10.26355/eurrev_202310_34080

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