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Application of self-anchored lateral lumbar interbody fusion in lumbar degenerative diseases

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2023 Oct 23;24(1):836. doi: 10.1186/s12891-023-06974-x.


STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of self-anchored lateral lumbar interbody fusion (SA-LLIF) in lumbar degenerative diseases.

METHODS: Forty-eight patients with lumbar degenerative disease between January 2019 and June 2020 were enrolled in this study. All patients complained of low back and leg pain, which were aggravated during standing activities and alleviated or disappeared during lying. After general anesthesia, the patient was placed in the right decubitus position. The anterior edge of the psoas major muscle was exposed through an oblique incision of approximately 6 cm, using an extraperitoneal approach. The psoas major muscle was then properly retracted dorsally to expose the disc. After discectomy, a suitable cage filled with autogenous bone graft from the ilium was implanted. Two anchoring plates were inserted separately into the caudal and cranial vertebral bodies to lock the cage. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Lumbar lordosis, intervertebral disc height, spondylolisthesis rate, cage subsidence and fusion rate were also recorded.

RESULTS: A total of 48 patients were enrolled in this study, including 20 males and 28 females, aged 61.4 ± 7.3 (range 49-78) years old. Surgery was successfully performed in all patients. Lumbar stenosis and instability were observed in 22 cases, disc degenerative disease in eight cases, degenerative spondylolisthesis in nine cases, degenerative scoliosis in six cases, and postoperative revision in three cases. In addition, five patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The index levels included L2-3 in three patients, L3-4 in 13 patients, L4-5 in 23 patients, L2-4 in three patients, and L3-5 in six patients. The operation time was 81.1 ± 6.4 (range 65-102) min. Intraoperative blood loss was 39.9 ± 8.5 (range 15-72) mL. No severe complications occurred, such as nerve or blood vessel injuries. The patients were followed up for 11.7 ± 2.3 (range 4-18) months. At the last follow-up, the VAS decreased from 6.2 ± 2.3 to 1.7 ± 1.1, and the ODI decreased from 48.4% ± 11.2% to 10.9% ± 5.5%. Radiography showed satisfactory postoperative spine alignment. No cage displacement was found, but cage subsidence 2-3 mm was found in five patients without obvious symptoms, except transient low back pain in an obese patient. The lumbar lordosis recovered from 36.8° ± 7.9° to 47.7° ± 6.8°, and intervertebral disc height recovered from 8.2 ± 2.0 mm to 11.4 ± 2.5 mm. The spondylolisthesis rate decreased from 19.9% ± 4.9% to 9.4% ± 3.2%. The difference between preoperative and last follow-up was statistically significant (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: SA-LLIF can provide immediate stability and good results for lumbar degenerative diseases with a standalone anchored cage without posterior internal fixation.

PMID:37872610 | DOI:10.1186/s12891-023-06974-x

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