Nevin Manimala Statistics

Phenotype and disease course differences in monogenic and sporadic childhood lupus

Lupus. 2023 Oct 25:9612033231211065. doi: 10.1177/09612033231211065. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: To report the differences in phenotypic characteristics, disease course, and outcome in monogenic and sporadic childhood lupus (SC-lupus) from a single tertiary childhood lupus clinic.

METHODS: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were retrospectively collected at the last follow-up visit on patients with monogenic lupus proven by genetic variants and SC-lupus seen between June 1997 and July 2022. SC-lupus patients were selected by systematic sampling from lupus patients presenting to our lupus clinic; the first patient was chosen randomly, and the subsequent patients were chosen at intervals of three. Data comprised the clinical and laboratory findings, disease activity using the SLEDAI, and damage measured by the pSDI.

RESULTS: A total of 54 patients with a median disease duration of 6.8 (IQR 3.5-10.5) years were included. There were 27 patients with monogenic lupus and 27 patients with SC-lupus, with a median age at disease onset of 3.5 (IQR 1.0-6.0), and 9.5 (IQR 7.0-11.8), respectively. (p < 0.05). The rate of consanguinity and family history of lupus were higher in monogenic lupus patients. The two groups were comparable. However, monogenic lupus patients showed more gastrointestinal tract symptoms, and failure to thrive (p < 0.05). They also had more infections. The frequency of the autoantibody profile was higher in monogenic lupus patients. Belimumab was more frequently used in monogenic lupus while rituximab in SC-lupus patients. Monogenic lupus patients had a higher mean SLEDAI, but statistically, it was insignificant. Patients with monogenic lupus had greater disease damage, with a higher mean pSDI and a higher mortality rate (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Patients with monogenic lupus are likely to have an early disease onset and a strong family history of lupus, as well as a guarded prognosis, which is likely due to the disease’s severity and frequent infections. These differences may be related to the high consanguinity rate and underlying genetic variants.

PMID:37878993 | DOI:10.1177/09612033231211065

By Nevin Manimala

Portfolio Website for Nevin Manimala