J Clin Ultrasound. 2023 Oct 26. doi: 10.1002/jcu.23593. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal frontal lobe development.
METHODS: This study was conducted prospectively between May 2023 and August 2023 in Ankara City Hospital perinatology clinic. Maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI), gestational week (GW), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), estimated fetal weight (EFW), frontal antero-posterior diameter (FAPD), occipito-frontal diameter (OFD), FAPD/OFD ratio, and FAPD/HC ratio, were compared between GDM (n = 40) and low risk controls (n = 56).
RESULTS: The mean maternal age was found higher in the GDM group compared to control group (p = 0.002). Maternal BMI was significantly higher in the GDM group than the control group (p = 0.01). Abdominal circumference (AC) was significantly higher in the GDM group compared to control group (p = 0.04). EFW was significantly higher in the GDM group compared to control group (p = 0.04). FAPD/OFD ratio was found to be higher in the GDM group than in the control group (p = 0.001). Among GDM patients, no statistically significant difference was found in the ultrasound measurements between the groups receiving insulin treatment and those without treatment. According to the correlation analysis results a moderate, positive, and statistically significant correlation was present between FAPD/OFD and GDM. In perinatal outcomes, the rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission was significantly higher in the GDM group.
DISCUSSION: Fetal frontal lobe development seems to be affected by GDM.