Bone Marrow Transplant. 2023 Oct 28. doi: 10.1038/s41409-023-02142-w. Online ahead of print.
There is limited evidence regarding the association between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and reduced relapse in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donors (haplo-HSCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY). We investigated the association between GVHD and transplant outcomes in 938 patients who received haplo-HSCT using PTCY. Overall survival (OS), relapse rate, and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were evaluated using landmark analysis at the landmark points at 100 and 360 days after HSCT for acute and chronic GVHD, respectively. Grade I-II acute GVHD was not associated with OS (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.85-1.57), relapse (1.03, 0.74-1.45) and NRM (1.15, 0.74-1.77). Conversely, grade III-IV acute GVHD was associated with higher NRM (3.16, 1.61-6.19), but no other outcomes. Limited chronic GVHD was not associated with OS (1.11, 0.48-1.95), relapse (1.05, 0.30-3.75) and NRM (1.30, 0.45-3.79). Extensive chronic GVHD was associated with higher NRM (2.40, 1.03-5.57), but no other outcome. In conclusion, any GVHD was not associated with a reduced relapse rate and improved OS, and Grade III-IV acute GVHD and extensive chronic GVHD were associated with higher NRM in patients who received haplo-HSCT using PTCY.