J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2023 Oct;11(4):230-239. doi: 10.30476/JAMP.2023.98953.1817.
INTRODUCTION: Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. It is considered a student-centered instructional design to motivate student learning and academic behavior. In this study, the effects of gamification on learning statistics (hypothesis testing issue) and attitude toward statistics in comparison with the common e-learning approach were investigated. The students’ experience and critical elements of gamification on learning statistics were assessed, too.
METHODS: In a before and after trial, in a census manner, 64 health faculty students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran, non-randomly were assigned to the intervention (n=42) and control (n=22) groups. Learning activities were gamified in the intervention group, while the control group received traditional problem-solving in the learning management system. Narrative, avatar, level, point, progress bar, scoreboard, challenge and feedback elements were used in the game experience. The implementation of gamification was applied based on Landers’ theory of gamified content. Valid and reliable Persian version of the Survey Attitude toward Statistics questionnaire measured the students’ attitude before and after the intervention. The EGameFlow questionnaire and a valid and reliable researcher-made exam measured the users’ experience of gamified content and learning hypothesis testing after the intervention. The independent samples T-test, analysis of covariance and the partial eta-squared effect size were calculated by SPSS software, version 26.
RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a more positive attitude toward learning difficulty (moderate partial eta-squared 0.099), value and cognitive competency (weak partial eta-squared=0.01 and 0.05). Learning between the two groups was not different (P=0.522). There was a significant correlation between learning and the students’ perceived experience with feedback (r=0.583, P<0.001), concentration (r=0.509, P=0.005), and challenge (r=0.421, P=0.023) of the gamified content.
CONCLUSION: It suggests using gamification on learning statistics while optimizing the design with more focus on the feedback, challenge and concentration elements.