Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2023 Oct 31:ijgc-2023-004945. doi: 10.1136/ijgc-2023-004945. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare tumors of the ovary. Moderate and poorly differentiated tumors can metastasize and have a poor outcome. A pathogenic variant in DICER1 is associated with an increased risk of developing these tumors along with other clinical phenotypes. We aimed to describe a national cohort of all Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors with regard to clinicopathological characteristics and frequency of DICER1 pathogenic variants.
METHODS: In May 2018, all patients registered from January 1997 to December 2017 with the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine code M86310 (Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor) were obtained from the Danish National Pathology Registry. Validation of the diagnosis depended on comments in the reports that two pathologists validated the initial diagnosis or revision of the pathology at another facility. We performed descriptive statistics to describe baseline characteristics, and cancer related survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis followed by a log rank test for differences between variables RESULTS: 41 women with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors were identified. Median age was 41 years (range 6-79). The stages according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) were: stage I, 85% (n=35), stage II, 2% (n=1), stage III, 5% (n=2), and stage IV, 7% (n=3). The 5 year cancer related survival was 100% for patients with localized disease (stages I-II) and 0% in advanced tumor stages (stages III-IV). Histological differentiation grade of the tumors was well differentiated in 29% (n=12), moderately differentiated in 56% (n=23), and poorly differentiated in 15% (n=6), and the 5 year cancer related survival was 100%, 96%, and 33%, respectively, according to grade. All patients underwent surgery. Twenty-two patients had fertility sparing surgery and four of these had given birth at the time of follow-up. Analysis of DICER1 was performed in eight women. Four carried a pathogenic variant. Four patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, three because of advanced tumor stage, and one because of a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.
CONCLUSION: The prognosis for women with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors with localized disease is excellent. Women with advanced stages (III-IV) have a poor prognosis, regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy. Fertility sparing surgery seems to be a viable option for localized Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. DICER1 screening was rarely performed in previous cohorts and concomitant organ screening programs are topics for discussion.