J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2023 Nov 1. doi: 10.1089/jop.2023.0080. Online ahead of print.
Purpose: This study was intended to characterize the impact of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) on patients’ quality of life. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, noninterventional clinical study (NCT01979887), eligible individuals (age ≥40 years; absence of uncontrolled ocular/systemic disease) were categorized, based on composite grading of ocular symptoms, Schirmer score, and meibum quality, into (1) non-MGD, (2) mild/moderate MGD, or (3) severe MGD cohorts. The MGD Impact Questionnaire (MGD IQ), a 10-item patient-reported outcome measure, was self-administered at clinic visit on day 1, and readministered on day 22 to assess intervisit agreement regarding MGD IQ responses. Results: In total, 75 subjects were assigned to the study cohorts (25 per cohort). Across cohorts, MGD IQ item scores rose incrementally with increasing MGD severity. The severe MGD cohort experienced greater difficulty with reading and performance of leisure activities, greater time on eye care, and greater bother with eye care and eye appearance than the mild/moderate MGD cohort (all P < 0.05). Compared with the non-MGD cohort, the mild/moderate MGD cohort had greater difficulty working on computer, whereas the severe MGD cohort had greater difficulty reading, driving, and performing leisure activities, more frequent difficulty with outdoor activities, more time on eye care, and greater bother with eye care (all P < 0.05). Intervisit agreement between MGD IQ responses was fair to moderate (weighted kappa statistic 0.33‒0.58). Conclusions: Vision-related activities are negatively impacted by increasing severity of MGD. The MGD IQ instrument can help characterize disease severity and amplify the patient’s voice in patient-centric clinical research. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01979887.