Nevin Manimala Statistics

Covid-19 during Pregnancy – Histopathological Lesions of the Placenta

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2023 Nov 2. doi: 10.1055/a-2180-7302. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women and their offspring represented a vulnerable patient collective during the Covid-19 pandemic. Beyond the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 via vertical transmission, an indirect impact on the fetus can occur through placental lesions deteriorating placental villous function. We performed a histopathological analysis of placentas of parturients with SARS-CoV-2 compared to healthy controls.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between February 2022 and July 2022 we conducted a prospective case-control study analyzing placental specimens of parturients with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to specimens of placentas of healthy controls. Patient history, Covid-19-specific symptoms, and obstetric outcomes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed.

RESULTS: During the observation period 71 patients were included with a gestational age 37 1/7-41 5/7 weeks. Thirty-six patients presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The control group consisted of 35 patients and showed no placental abnormalities. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive parturients, 66.7% of placentas of the case group showed histopathological abnormalities classified as vascular or inflammatory abnormalities. 22.2% of placentas showed acute ischemic infarction areas. 8.3% of placentas showed subchorionic layered thrombi. There was one case of severe acute subchorionitis. SARS-CoV-2 increased the risk of placental lesions significantly (OR 3.000, CI 1.890-4.762, p=0.0001). Placental lesions had no significant impact on perinatal acidosis (OR 0.455, CI 0.044-4.667, p=0.498) or number of cesarean sections (OR 2.314, CI 0.717-7.473, p=0.156).

CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during labor and delivery increased the risk of adverse outcomes. Histopathological analysis indicated that the placenta as a maternal-fetal interface was affected by SARS-CoV-2, leading to systemic vasculopathy and inflammation.

PMID:37918832 | DOI:10.1055/a-2180-7302

By Nevin Manimala

Portfolio Website for Nevin Manimala