Ann Vasc Surg. 2023 Oct 31:S0890-5096(23)00731-8. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2023.09.073. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: To explore the influence of sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and anthropometric factors on the association between sex and functional capacity in patients with peripheral arterial disease.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients aged over 45 years, diagnosed with PAD, from two Brazilian hospitals. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral risk factors, clinical profile, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Functional capacity was assessed using the six-minute walk test and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Statistical analyses, including t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression, were performed to assess the relationships between sex, functional capacity, and potential influencing factors.
RESULTS: Among the 262 patients with PAD, 67 were women and 113 were men. Women exhibited lower absolute functional capacity and lower WIQ scores compared to men, even after adjusting for potential confounders. However, relative functional capacity did not significantly differ between sexes after adjusting for variables. Pain-free walking distance was also lower in women compared to men, but this association lost significance after adjusting for sociodemographic factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Women with PAD had lower absolute functional capacity compared to men, influenced by various factors such as sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and anthropometric factors. However, the relative functional capacity was similar between genders, being influenced only by behavioral factors, while for the distance walked until pain, the association was lost after adjustments for sociodemographic factors.