PLoS One. 2023 Nov 14;18(11):e0289622. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0289622. eCollection 2023.
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) has increased in rural states such as West Virginia (WV) with high injection drug use. IE is medically managed with antimicrobial treatment alone or combined with surgical treatment. This study aimed to characterize the predictors associated with surgical treatment and rates of inpatient mortality and readmission among IE patients in WV’s rural centers.
METHODS: This retrospective review of electronic health records includes all adults hospitalized for IE at major rural tertiary cardiovascular centers in WV during 2014-2018. Descriptive statistics were presented on demographics, history of injection drug use, clinical characteristics, and hospital utilization by surgery status, and multivariable logistic regression examined the association of surgery with key predictor variables, generating odds ratios (OR).
RESULTS: Of the 780 patients with IE, 38% had surgery, with a 26-fold increase in patients undergoing surgery between 2014-2018. Comparing surgery and non-surgery patients revealed significant differences. Surgery patients were significantly younger (median age 35.6 vs. 40.5 years; p<0.001); had higher rates of drug use history (80% vs. 65%; p<0.001), psychiatric disorders (57% vs. 31%; p<0.001), and readmissions (18% vs.12%; p = 0.015). Surgery patients had lower rates of discharge against medical advice (11% vs.17%; p = 0.028) and in-hospital mortality (5% vs.12%; p<0.001). In the multivariable logistic regression, surgery was associated with injection drug use (OR: 1.9; 95% CI:1.09-3. 3), indications for surgery (OR: 1.68; 95% CI:1.48-1.91), left-sided IE (OR: 2.14; 95%CI:1.43-3.19) and later years (OR:3.75; 95%CI:2.5-5.72).
CONCLUSION: This study characterizes the predictors associated with surgical treatment and rates of inpatient mortality and readmission among IE patients across rural WV. The decision to perform cardiac surgery on IE patients is complex. Results with increased injection drug use-associated IE emphasize the importance of comprehensive care by a multidisciplinary team for optimal management of patients with IE.