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Heavy metal toxicity arising from the industrial effluents repercussions on oxidative stress, liver enzymes and antioxidant activity in brain homogenates of Oreochromis niloticus

Sci Rep. 2023 Nov 15;13(1):19936. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-47366-4.


Industrial effluents reaching to the aquatic ecosystem is one of the major causes of environmental pollution and exposure to industrial effluents containing harmful substances may be a serious threat to human health. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the sub-lethal (1/5th of predetermined LC50) impact of industrial effluents from Sundar Industrial Estate on Oreochromis niloticus with proper negative control. The physicochemical analysis of industrial effluents showed enormous loads of inorganic pollutants and exhibited high mean levels of heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Zn and Fe with statistically significant differences at p < 0.05. Highest level of Mn and Fe was detected in effluent’s samples as 147.36 ± 80.91 mg/L and 90.52 ± 32.08 mg/L, respectively. Exposure led to increase in serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase + 25%, aspartate aminotransferase + 20% and alkaline phosphatase + 7% over control although superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione significantly increased as 3.42, 2.44, 4.8 and 8 folds, respectively in metabolically active tissue brain which indicated stress caused by industrial effluents. The results concluded that industrial effluent has potent oxidative stress inducers on one hand whereas histoarchitectural and physiological toxicity causing contaminants on the other. This condition may adversely affect the health of aquatic organisms, the fish and ultimately the human beings.

PMID:37968305 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-47366-4

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