Biomol Biomed. 2023 Nov 16. doi: 10.17305/bb.2023.9829. Online ahead of print.
This study undertakes a comprehensive comparison of five different interventions for the treatment of type-1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP), offering insights into their relative efficacies and contributing to better clinical decision-making. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept (IVA), intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB), intravitreal conbercept (IVC), intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR), and laser therapy in treating these conditions. We conducted a search for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in databases, namely PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Ovid, focusing on these five treatment modalities for ROP. The quality of included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool, and data analysis was performed using STATA software. The results from our network meta-analysis (NMA) indicated that IVA significantly prolonged the interval between initial treatment and relapse in patients, with a surface under the cumulative ranking cruve (SUCRA) value of 99.1%. Additionally, patients in the IVB group had a significantly higher spherical equivalent refraction (SER) after surgery, with a SUCRA value of 84.4%. Furthermore, IVR was the most effective in reducing the duration of peripheral retinal vascularization, with a SUCRA value of 95.6%. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relapse rates among the five treatment options. Our analysis concludes that intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drug monotherapy generally offer better outcomes than laser treatment for ROP. Nonetheless, additional RCTs are necessary to further evaluate the safety of anti-VEGF agents.