J Magn Reson Imaging. 2023 Nov 19. doi: 10.1002/jmri.29141. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses are at risk for perinatal adverse outcomes. Fetal body composition reflects the fetal nutrition status and hold promise as potential prognostic indicator. MRI quantification of fetal anthropometrics may enhance SGA risk stratification.
HYPOTHESIS: Smaller, leaner fetuses are malnourished and will experience unfavorable outcomes.
STUDY TYPE: Prospective.
POPULATION: 40 SGA fetuses, 26 (61.9%) females: 10/40 (25%) had obstetric interventions due to non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS), and 17/40 (42.5%) experienced adverse neonatal events (CANO). Participants underwent MRI between gestational ages 30 + 2 and 37 + 2.
FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3-T, True Fast Imaging with Steady State Free Precession (TruFISP) and T1 -weighted two-point Dixon (T1 W Dixon) sequences.
ASSESSMENT: Total body volume (TBV), fat signal fraction (FSF), and the fat-to-body volumes ratio (FBVR) were extracted from TruFISP and T1 W Dixon images, and computed from automatic fetal body and subcutaneous fat segmentations by deep learning. Subjects were followed until hospital discharge, and obstetric interventions and neonatal adverse events were recorded.
STATISTICAL TESTS: Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions for the association between TBV, FBVR, and FSF and interventions for NRFS and CANO. Fisher’s exact test was used to measure the association between sonographic FGR criteria and perinatal outcomes. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: FBVR (odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.76) and FSF (OR 0.95, CI 0.91-0.99) were linked with NRFS interventions. Furthermore, TBV (OR 0.69, CI 0.56-0.86) and FSF (OR 0.96, CI 0.93-0.99) were linked to CANO. The FBVR sensitivity/specificity for obstetric interventions was 85.7%/87.5%, and the TBV sensitivity/specificity for CANO was 82.35%/86.4%. The sonographic criteria sensitivity/specificity for obstetric interventions was 100%/33.3% and insignificant for CANO (P = 0.145).
DATA CONCLUSION: Reduced TBV and FBVR may be associated with higher rates of obstetric interventions for NRFS and CANO.
EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 5.