J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2023 Nov 20. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000002786. Online ahead of print.
AIM: Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity postallogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT). There is paucity of literature describing incidence, risk factors, characteristics, and outcome of cGVHD in children undergoing haploidentical PBSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Here, we describe our experience from our center regarding the same.
METHODS: All children who underwent haploidentical PBSCT with PTCy between January 2016 and December 2021 at our center and survived beyond day+100 post-transplant were included in this retrospective study. Conditioning regimens used were: Thiotepa-Fludarabine-Cyclophosphamide with 2 Gy single fraction total body irradiation, Thiotepa-Busulfan-Fludarabine, Fludarabine-total body irradiation and Fludarabine-Melphalan. Peripheral blood was used as stem cell source in all patients. GVHD prophylaxis was PTCy 50 mg/kg on day +3 and +4, Mycophenolate mofetil and Calcineurin inhibitors. Clinical and laboratory data was electronically retrieved and analyzed based on National Institute of Health Consensus Criteria-2014 at regular intervals. Impact of various patient, donor, and transplant-related factors on development of cGVHD were analyzed. Incidence of relapse, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated and compared between cGVHD and no cGVHD groups. Patients with rejection were excluded from risk factor analysis for cGVHD but were considered for survival analysis.
RESULTS: Fifty-one children included in this study. Median age of transplant of our cohort was 7.5 years with male:female=1.6:1. Eight patients had rejection with autologous recovery. History of acute GVHD (aGVHD) was present in 15/51 (Grade III to IV in 7/51). cGVHD developed in 19/51 patients (mild-9/51, moderate-6/51, and severe-4/51). Skin was the most common organ involved (100%) followed by gastrointestinal tract (47.4%), liver (36.8%), eyes (21%), lungs (21%), mouth (15.7%), and joints (5.2%). Advanced donor age (>30 y) and previous aGVHD were found to be significantly associated with increased risk of developing cGVHD. At last follow-up, complete response and partial response of cGVHD was seen in 6/19 and 4/19 patients, respectively. Overall mortality was 15/51 (cause of mortality was relapse of cancer 8/15, cGVHD-3/15, other 4/15). EFS and OS of full cohort was 55% and 70.6%, respectively. Compared with patients without cGVHD, patients with cGVHD demonstrated a lower relapse (18.2% vs. 40%, P=0.2333), higher EFS (68.4% vs. 53.1%, P=0.283), and higher OS (73.7% vs. 68.8%, P=0.708).
CONCLUSION: Incidence of cGVHD was high in children undergoing haploidentical PBSCT with PTCy. Other than PBSC graft source; donor age and previous aGVHD were the risks factors for development of cGVHD. Patients with cGVHD had lower incidence of relapse translating into better survival but this difference was not statistically significant.