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High sensitivity and specificity in fetal gender identification in the first trimester, using ultrasound and Noninvasive Prenatal Screening (NIPS) in twin pregnancies, a prospective study

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2023 Nov 22;23(1):812. doi: 10.1186/s12884-023-06133-z.


INTRODUCTION: Determination of the fetal gender in the first trimester is important in twin pregnancy cases of familial X-linked genetic syndromes and helps determine chorionicity. We assessed and compared the accuracy of first-trimester ultrasound scans, and cell-free fetal DNA (CfDNA) in determining fetal gender in the first trimester of twin pregnancies.

METHODS: Women with twin pregnancies were recruited prospectively during the first trimester. Fetal gender was determined using both ultrasound scans and CfDNA screening. Both results were compared to the newborn gender after delivery.

RESULTS: A total of 113 women with twin pregnancies were enrolled. There was 100% sensitivity and specificity in Y chromosome detection using CfDNA. Gender assignment using ultrasound in any first-trimester scans was 79.7%. Accuracy level increased from 54.2% in CRL 45-54 mm to 87.7% in CRL 55-67 mm and 91.5% in CRL 67-87 mm. Male fetuses had significantly higher chances of a gender assignment error compared to female fetuses, odds ratio = 23.574 (CI 7.346 – 75.656).

CONCLUSIONS: CfDNA is highly sensitive and specific in determining the presence of the Y chromosome in twin pregnancies in the first trimester. Between CRL 55-87 mm, ultrasound scanning offers a highly accurate determination of fetal gender in twin pregnancies.

PMID:37993805 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-023-06133-z

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