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Performance of the PRIMaCY sudden death risk prediction model for childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: implications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator decision-making

Europace. 2023 Nov 2;25(11):euad330. doi: 10.1093/europace/euad330.


AIMS: The validated HCM Risk-Kids model provides accurate individualized estimates of sudden cardiac death risk in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). A second validated model, PRIMaCY, also provides individualized estimates of risk, but its performance and clinical impact has not been independently investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical impact of using the PRIMaCY sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk model in childhood HCM.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The estimated 5-year SCD risk was calculated for children meeting diagnostic criteria for HCM in a large single-centre cohort using PRIMaCY (clinical and genetic) and HCM Risk-Kids model, and model performance was assessed. Three hundred one patients [median age 10 (interquartile range 4-14)] were followed up for an average of 4.9 (±3.8) years, during which 30 (10.0%) reached the SCD or equivalent event endpoint. Harrell’s C-statistic for the clinical and genetic models was 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.8] and 0.66 (95% CI 0.54-0.80) with a calibration slope of 0.19 (95% CI 0.04-0.54) and 0.26 (95% CI -0.03-0.62), respectively. The number needed to treat to potentially treat one life-threatening arrhythmia for the PRIMaCY clinical, PRIMaCY genetic, and HCM Risk-Kids models was 13.7, 14.5, and 9.4, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Although PRIMaCY has a similar discriminatory ability to that reported for HCM Risk-Kids, estimated risk estimates did not correlate well with observed risk. A higher proportion of patients met implantable cardioverter-defibrillator thresholds using PRIMaCY model compared with HCM Risk-Kids. This has important clinical implications as these patients will be exposed to a lifetime risk of complications and inappropriate therapies.

PMID:37995093 | DOI:10.1093/europace/euad330

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