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The Joint Effect of Body Mass Index and Serum Lipid Levels on Incident Dementia among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

J Nutr Health Aging. 2023;27(11):1118-1126. doi: 10.1007/s12603-023-2027-5.


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the joint effect of body mass index (BMI) and serum lipids levels on incident dementia.

METHODS: We prospectively followed up with 1,627 dementia-free community residents aged ≥60 for 5.7 years on average. At baseline, weight, and height were measured, and total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were detected in serum. Demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires. Dementia was based on consensus diagnosis of neurologists and neuropsychologists using DSM-IV criteria. Additive Cox proportional model was used to assess the exposure-response relationship between BMI and serum lipid levels and dementia risk. Interactions and further classifications of BMI and serum lipid levels were further presented by bivariate surface models and decision-tree models.

RESULTS: The joint effects of TC with BMI, TG with BMI, and LDL-C with BMI on the risk of incident dementia shared a similar pattern, different from their independent exposure-response curves. The joint effect of HDL-C with BMI showed an S-surface but without statistical significance. Participants with TC<5.4 mmol/L and BMI<21 kg/m2 (Hazard Ratio(HR) 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05-3.53), TC<5.4 mmol/L and BMI≥21 kg/m2 (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.09-2.72), and TC≥5.4 mmol/L and BMI<21 kg/m2 (HR 4.02, 95% CI 2.10-7.71) were identified to have the increased risk of incident dementia compared to those with TC≥5.4 mmol/L and BMI≥21 kg/m2. Participants with TG<1.7 mmol/L and BMI<21 kg/m2 had an increased risk of incident dementia compared to those with TG≥1.7 mmol/L and BMI≥21 kg/m2 (HR 1.98, 95%CI 1.17-3.3). Participants with LDL-C≥3.3 mmol/L and BMI<21 kg/m2 were identified to have an increased risk of incident dementia compared to those with LDL-C≥3.3 mmol/L and BMI≥21 kg/m2 (HR 3.33, 95%CI 1.64-6.78).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that low BMI combined with low or high levels of serum lipids may increase the risk of dementia among older adults. This finding suggests the potential impacts of these two metabolic indexes on the risk of dementia.

PMID:37997734 | DOI:10.1007/s12603-023-2027-5

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