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Aneurysm and Artery Dissection After Oral VEGFR-TKI Use in Adults With Cancer

JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Nov 1;6(11):e2345977. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.45977.


IMPORTANCE: The association of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR-TKIs) with aneurysm and artery dissection (AAD) has been frequently reported in spontaneous reporting databases.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk and incidence of AAD occurrence in patients with cancer treated with oral VEGFR-TKIs, with capecitabine as an active comparator.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This national, historical cohort study was conducted using national claims data from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2007 to 2020, with a 1-year follow-up. Patients with cancer aged 40 years or older prescribed oral VEGFR-TKIs or capecitabine were enrolled. Data were analyzed from September 2022 through April 2023.

EXPOSURE: Oral VEGFR-TKIs (sorafenib, regorafenib, vandetanib, sunitinib, lenvatinib, axitinib, and pazopanib) or capecitabine as a comparator.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) were used to investigate the association between VEGFR-TKI use and AAD after propensity score matching. The primary outcome was AAD, and secondary outcomes were aortic aneurysm and dissection and AAD with rupture. Outcomes were defined using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis codes.

RESULTS: Among 127 710 patients with cancer eligible for the study (80 386 males [62.9%]; mean [SD] age, 62.6 [10.9] years), 37 308 patients received VEGFR-TKIs and 90 402 patients received capecitabine. Among 27 535 matched patients receiving VEGFR-TKIs, the incidence of AAD within 1 year of treatment initiation was 6.0 per 1000 person-years. The median (IQR) time to AAD onset in the matched AAD group was 114 (67-257) days after treatment initiation, with the highest incidence observed during the first 3 months (45 incidents vs 31, 17, and 16 incidents during 3- to 6-month, 6- to 9-month, and 9- to 12-month periods, respectively). Cox regression modeling showed that the risk of AAD occurrence was significantly higher among patients prescribed VEGFR-TKIs than those receiving capecitabine (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.08-2.02); similar results were obtained among females (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.26-3.42), older adults (aged ≥65 years; HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.01-1.99), and patients with dyslipidemia (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.11-2.24).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, the use of oral VEGFR-TKIs was associated with an increased risk of AAD occurrence. These findings elucidate vascular toxic effects and may provide a substantial reference for reducing the socioeconomic burden of adverse events associated with VEGFR-TKI use.

PMID:38019511 | DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.45977

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