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Long-term efficacy of mandibular advancement devices in the treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review and meta-analysis

PLoS One. 2023 Nov 28;18(11):e0292832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0292832. eCollection 2023.


This study aims to review the long-term subjective and objective efficacy of mandibular advancement devices (MAD) in the treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Electronic databases such as PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized self-controlled trials with a treatment duration of at least 1 year with MAD were included. The quality assessment and data extraction of the included studies were conducted in the meta-analysis. A total of 22 studies were included in this study, of which 20 (546 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. All the studies had some shortcomings, such as small sample sizes, unbalanced sex, and high dropout rates. The results suggested that long-term treatment of MAD can significantly reduce the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) by -3.99 (95%CI -5.93 to -2.04, p<0.0001, I2 = 84%), and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) -16.77 (95%CI -20.80 to -12.74) events/h (p<0.00001, I2 = 97%). The efficacy remained statistically different in the severity (AHI<30 or >30 events/h) and treatment duration (duration <5y or >5y) subgroups. Long-term use of MAD could also significantly decrease blood pressure and improve the score of functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire (FOSQ). Moderate evidence suggested that the subjective and objective effect of MAD on adult OSA has long-term stability. Limited evidence suggests long-term use of MAD might improve comorbidities and healthcare. In clinical practice, regular follow-up is recommended.

PMID:38015938 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0292832

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